Used in Hydraulics and Pneumatics. In hydraulic they are composed of two bodies, the female or socket and the male or plug. When connected by pushing the two parts, the valves open and the flow starts and contains the internal pressure and the forces that pull the joint apart. Known as well as push & pull type. To disconnect the joint it has to be pulled ejecting the plug and the valves shut off.
In hydraulic applications we have choices according to the locking system.
The most common is the ball lock and is considered as the general purpose coupling. The lock is provided by a group of balls located along the inner crown of the socket which are pushed against the groove of the plug and opens the valve in the center
The flat face type is used in cases where the minimum spill is a must. It uses a ball or poppet valve. This system reduces the pressure drop and air inclusion as compared with the ball lock
The thread lock is designed for high pressure applications and uses ball or poppet valves. The locking system is by rotating the female of ductile casting or the wing nut. This system drives the spill and air inclusion to a minimum
In pneumatic they are composed of two halves, the female coupler which contains a shut-off valve and the male nipple with a hose barb end which opens the valve when inserted into the coupler